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Thursday, July 31, 2014

Thursday, July 31

Judges 4:4–23; Psalm 143; Acts 1:15–26; Matthew 27:55-66

Deborah was a prophet, one of the few women to occupy that role in Israel’s life. She sat daily at a palm tree in the hill country of Ephraim, delivering oracles to those who came to her with questions and giving judgments when there were differences between families, tribes and so on. But, “The Israelites again did what was evil in the sight of the Lord,” after Ehud died. So the Lord sold them into the hand of King Jabin of Canaan, who reigned in Hazor.” The commander of Jabin’s army was Sisera. Jabin’s city-state “kingdom” was located on the trade route that crossed from the sea over and up into what is now Damascus. Sisera was prosperous and strong. Nine hundred chariots of iron speaks of Sisera’s tremendous military superiority—Israel is trapped under Jabin’s cruel rule. But Deborah, in her prophetic role, delivers word from the Lord to Barak from the tribe of Naphtali. He is to gather 10,000 men from his own tribe and 10,000 from the neighboring tribe of Zebulun and encamp on Mt. Tabor, awaiting God to draw out King Jabin’s army, under the leadership of Sisera. God will give them into Barak’s hand. Barak says he will do so, but only if Deborah goes with him. This is not cowardice on Barak’s part, but rather his recognition that he needs Deborah’s divine guidance if the battle is to be a success. She agrees, but also tells him that when the day is over, the glory will not be his, but will belong to a woman. Barak does as he is told, summons the men (the 10,000 is probably an exaggeration, and more likely represents “ten military units” similar to squadrons or companies; the ancient biblical writers tend to use number more symbolically than factually). In the mist of the drama, we have an interlude to introduce Heber the Kenite. Descendants of Moses’ father in law, the Kenites were metal smiths, and as such, were politically neutral so as to be able to provide military weapons to all sides. The story resumes with Sisera being told that Barak has taken to Mt. Tabor with troops, and so Sisera pursues him. As Sisera and his troops approach, Deborah announced “Up! The Lord has given him into your hands.” That is precisely what happens. Just as at the Red Sea, the Lord throws the chariots and army into a panic before Barak. In the midst of the battle, as Barak is pursuing the chariots, Sisera dismounts his and flees on foot to the tents of Heber the Kenite, and approaches Heber’s wife, Jael, standing at the door of her tent. She sees him fleeing and invites him into the safety and protection of her tent (such hospitality in the middle east of that age was not simply expected, but demanded between neighboring people who lived peaceably together—Sisera has a right to expect such help.) Jael agrees: she will hide him. Telling Sisera to lie down she covers him with a rug. He asks for a drink and she gives him milk from a skin. Thereupon, he asks her to stand at the door of her tent and if anyone asks of him, say “No, he is not here.” Appearing to agree, she goes to get a tent peg and hammer (women in that day were responsible for setting up the tents), then comes softly to the rug under which Sisera lays, and drives the tent peg through his temple, killing and pinning him to the ground. When Barak, who is pursing Sisera, arrives at the tent, Jael comes forth from her tent and invites Barak in to see his enemy lying dead. The chronicler ends the story attributing not only this victory to God, but also the ultimate destruction of King Jabin of Canaan by the Israelites.

Psalm 143 is the cry of one who has suffered defeat and turns to the Lord for help, recognizing that no one is righteous before the Lord, yet the Lord is merciful. He remembers the old days of victory, the days when the Lord was at hand. And so he stretches out his hand in search of God, lest he go down to the Pit. Pleading for God’s steadfast love, he has asked God to deliver him from his enemies, teach him his ways, and let God’s Spirit lead him on level paths. He is but God’s servant, and pleads no right of his own. Rather, he asks God to do all this because of God’s righteousness and steadfast love--God's name’s sake.

In the interim between Jesus’ crucifixion and ascension, Jesus’ followers have grown tenfold, from the women and twelve who had hidden behind locked doors, until he appeared in the midst of them, into a group of some 120 followers, with the men of the original twelve clearly in leadership. Peter now steps forward to give a theological read on Judas, what he did and why, and what became of him. The account of Judas’ death is quite different than the one reported in Matthew, and, of course, Luke does not include the account in his gospel. Quoting Psalm 109:10 he then lays out the criteria for apostleship: a man (the Greek word is aner, meaning male), who had accompanied them with Jesus from the beginning until he was taken up from them—one of these must join the other eleven in being witnesses to Jesus’ resurrection. Two are proposed: Joseph called Barsabbas, also known by his Roman name, Justus, and Matthias. They pray and then cast lots for who is to join them in “this ministry and apostleship” from which Judas turned aside. The lot falls on Matthias, about whom, by the way, we never hear another thing. On the other hand, there will be another, named Saul, who does not fit Peter’s criteria who is also “sent” (the foundational notion behind the word apostle), and who will be joined by others, including not only the Twelve in Jerusalem, but also Jesus’ brother James and then a host of others whose names appear in Paul’s correspondence, both Jews and gentiles and at least one woman.

All have abandoned Jesus except for the many women who had followed Jesus to Jerusalem, and who have been looking on from afar. Among them are the three Marys: Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of Joseph and James (is this Jesus’ mother or are Joseph and James not Jesus’ brothers), and Mary the mother of the sons of Zebedee—James and John. They look on as Joseph of Arimathea, who Matthew names as a disciple of Jesus, goes to Pilate and receives permission to take the body down and bury it. He does so, wrapping it in a clean linen cloth and placing it in his own new tomb. Rolling a large stone over the mouth of the cave, he goes away while the three Mary’s continue to look on. That next day, the chief priests and Pharisees return to Pilate—on the sabbath! Remembering that Jesus had said, “after three days I will rise again,” they ask Pilate to secure the tomb until the third day. Otherwise, some of Jesus’ disciples might come and steal the body and tell people he had risen, creating an even greater deception. Pilate grants the guards permission to do this, and so the chief priests and Pharisees go, and with the guards, seal the tomb. Notice that this time, the chief priests and Pharisees quote Jesus correctly, whereas in the trial, they had twisted his words to say that he would destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days. They know that he said he would rise on the third day and want to do all they can to stop it. The other interesting thing about this is that what they fear—Jesus’ dead body being stolen and developed into a rumor of his resurrection.  It is precisely one of the stories that the synagogues will spread to deny Jesus’ resurrection.

Posted July 31, 2014
Wednesday, July 30, 2014

Wednesday, July 30

Judges 3:12–30; Psalm 65; Acts 1:1–14; Matt. 27:45–54

“The Israelites again did what was evil in the sight of the Lord….” This is the Deuteronomic school’s historian’s way of saying the people have fallen into idolatry and worshipping the gods of the people who were not driven from the land. And notice that when judgment comes, it comes at the hand of the Lord through one of Israel’s enemies—whether Ammonites, Moabites, Jebusites, and so on, the people they had initially conquered to enter the land. In this case, it is the Moabites whose King Eglon the Lord strengthens to make him an instrument of God’s judgment against Israel. Eglon, who in an alliance with the Ammonites and the Amalikites, subjugate Israel, take “the city of palms,” (probably Jericho), and force the Israelites to serve him. After 18 years of this servitude, the people cry out to the Lord, who hears, determines their punishment has lasted long enough and “raises up” someone to rescue them. In this case it is a left-handed man from the tribe of Benjamin named Ehud. King Eglon is “a very fat man.” Ehud fashions a double-edged sword a cubit long (about the length of a forearm), and straps it on his right leg, under his clothing, so as to appear unarmed (armed men would have a sword visibly strapped to the left side of their body). The Israelites send Eglon a tribute through Ehud, and in the ensuing interaction, after the tribute has been paid, Ehud and those that brought the tribute with him, are sent away. As they pass by the “carved stones,” probably the memorial Joshua set up after crossing the Jordan, Ehud leaves the men and returns to tell Eglon he has a secret message for him from God. Eglon dispatches his guards and draws near to Ehud who uses his right hand to cover his voice and whisper in the king’s ear, while drawing his sword with his left hand and thrusting it so deeply into the king that the hilt disappears under his layers of flesh. Thereupon, Ehud escapes, locking the door behind him. He is long gone by the time the King’s servants discover the dead king. Back among the Israelites, Ehud uses the same language we would expect from Joshua: “The Lord has given them into your hands,” and he leads the Israelites in battle against the Moabites, blocking the crossing at the ford of the Jordan so the Moabites cannot flee to their home country east of the Jordan. None do, about 10,000 are destroyed and Israel is freed from their oppressors for about the next eighty years.

Psalm 65 celebrates God’s abundance as it appears on the earth; but first, this is the God who forgives all our transgressions! This is the God who invites people into his presence to bless them. This is the God who welcomes them in his holy temple; this is the One who answers prayer and is abundant in forgiveness. Now the works of God are rehearsed: this is the God who is known to the ends of the earth—the one who makes “the dawn and the sunset shout for joy!”—what a marvelous phrase for the glory of the sunrise and sunset! God’s sovereignty over creation is remembered, almost to the point of this being a creation psalm. The psalm turns to bless God for God’ lavish acts of provision: abundant rain and water for a plentiful crop of grain, the hills dripping with the fatness of the flocks. Even the pastures of the wilderness drip with such abundance. And so, the psalm blesses God’s deliverance as well as God’s good provision and abundant blessings from the earth. All praise is due to the Lord.

We begin our journey through the Book of Acts, the second book of Luke’s two volume Church history, the first being his gospel. It is addressed to Theophilus, which literally means “God-lover.” Thus begins the transition from the basic story of Jesus and his gospel to the spread of the good news from Jerusalem, to the outer edges of the Empire. Luke begins by telling of the 40 days between Jesus’ resurrection until the day when he “went up into heaven." During that time Jesus continues to reveal himself to the disciples by “many convincing proofs.” In other words, he was not with them on a 40 day retreat but continued to come and go and make himself known in ways that were irrefutable. Finally, he gathered them and told them not to leave Jerusalem but wait there for what the Father has promised. “John baptized with water;” he tells them, but they are “to be baptized with the power of the Holy Spirit.” Something totally new is about to take place. The disciples can’t stand it and ask, “Is this the time you are going to restore the kingdom to Israel?” That, of course, is what they have been expecting from the Messiah from the very beginning. Jesus tells them that this is not something they are to know. The Father has set a time, but for now, they are going to receive power to become his witnesses, in Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria, and the utter ends of the earth. This is bigger than restoring the kingdom to Israel. God has grander things in mind, and they are to be a part of it. Having said this, Jesus is lifted up, out of their sight, while they are left—mouths hanging open—wondering where Jesus has gone and when he will be back. This is evidently the first time he has disappeared out of their sight in this way. After all, he has come and gone before, but never quite like this. Suddenly, “two men dressed in white” are standing next to them asking, “Why are you wasting your time sky-gazing. Jesus, who has been taken up into heaven from you will come in the same way you have seen him go. And so, the disciples return from the Mt. of Olivet to Jerusalem and to the room where they had met on Thursday evening for the Lord’s Supper and where they have been staying since. Now of one mind (the first time that has been said about them!), they devote themselves to prayer as they wait. The eleven are named, and with them are the women who had followed and served Jesus, as well as “Mary, the mother of Jesus, and his brothers.”

At noon, darkness falls over the whole land and for the next three hours all wait in silence. About 3 pm, Jesus calls out in the opening words of Psalm 22, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” Those standing by misunderstand and think him calling for Elijah to come and save him. One of them runs to get a sponge of wine to give him a drink, but others say “Wait; let’s see if Elijah comes.” Jesus gives one last cry and is dead. At that very moment, the curtain in the temple that veiled the Holy of Holies shielding its sacred presence from the profane is suddenly torn in two from the top to the bottom. Matthew is doing more than reporting on events; he is making a theological statement. God is no longer veiled behind a curtain, and access is no longer limited only to the High Priest once a year on the “Day of Atonement.” “Top to bottom,” means that it took divine action to do this. The darkness that covered the earth for those three hours is now gone, and in the earthquake that accompanies Jesus’ death, rocks are split and tombs are broken open. It is reported that many of the saints (Jewish martyrs) were raised back to life and walked the streets of the city that night, for Jesus’ death has meant their release from captivity. In the midst of the chaos, the Roman Centurion in charge of the crucifixion detail cowers in fear saying, “Truly this man was God’s son.”

Posted July 30, 2014
Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Tuesday, July 29

Judges 2:1–5, 11–23; Psalm 54; Romans 16:17–27; Matthew 27:32–44

We begin today with the book of Judges, which continues the history of Israel as it occupies the land. We have skipped the first chapter, which is essentially a chronicle of each of the tribes occupying their own land. The important thing to note there, if you read the chapter, is that the heads of the tribes often do not completely drive the Canaanites out of the land as they were commanded to do, but allow them to stay, often with the rationale that they will serve them. Doing so, they make themselves vulnerable to precisely what Joshua warned them about: the impact of foreign wives, intermarriage, and ultimately incorporating other gods and worship practices into Israel’s life, violating the covenant that God has made with them. We are told that so long as Joshua and the elders who had led with him remained alive, the people remained faithful. But, when that older generation died, a younger emerged that did not know nor remember the Lord and his work on Israel’s behalf. In Judges, there is a familiar pattern that is outlined in today’s lesson: the Israelites “do what is evil in the sight of the Lord,” a formulaic saying which means that they begin to worship the Canaanite god Baal and Astarte (goddess), as well as the Lord, sometimes abandoning the Lord altogether. The Lord’s anger is “kindled against Israel,” and God gives them over into the hands of the Canaanites who oppress them. After a period of oppression, the people cry out in repentance to the Lord, who relents and sends them a “Judge”—a military champion who delivers them out of the power of the Canaanites and leads them back into covenant faithfulness. As long as that Judge “rules,” the people remain faithful. But, once that Judge passes from the scene, the cycle returns with people falling even more deeply into apostasy. The book chronicles the period of time between entrance into the land around 1150 BCE and the people evolving from tribes into a “state” that demands a king in 1020 BCE. The book contains some of the most dramatic and heroic episodes of life as Israel transitions into the land.

Psalm 54 records a prayer of trust from David when Saul was seeking his life (1 Samuel 23:19), and offers a model of prayer for any who are in trouble. “Save me, O God, by your name, and vindicate me by your might. Hear my prayer, O God; give ear to the words of my mouth.” The insolent have risen against him, the heartless seek his life; their disdain for God and God’s ways and judgments enables them to pursue the psalmist with such ruthlessness. Then the psalm voices its faith and trust in God—“Surely, God is my helper, the upholder of my life.” Vengeance is left to God—“Surely he will repay my enemies for their evil.” Notice that this conviction is based upon God’s faithfulness! God not only rescues; God cuts off the enemy—the deliverance is complete. The psalm ends with the promise of a freewill offering in the temple, giving thanks to the Lord, for he is good. And now, what the psalmist sought has taken place: The Lord has delivered him from every trouble. The psalmist’s eye has looked in triumph on his enemies, for deliverance is not deliverance until it includes vindication.

Paul brings his letter to a close. First he warns the Romans about the destructive power of dissensions, especially those that will emerge from people coming in and teaching in opposition to what Paul has taught. He then reaffirms the Roman’s obedience, and his joy in them, reminding them that their faithfulness is known throughout the Empire. As they remain faithful, God will “crush Satan” under their feet—they will remain victorious over these temptations. Paul then turns to naming those who are with him: Timothy, his companion on the second and third missionary journeys and others in the community. Notice that Tertius, the secretary to whom Paul is dictating this letter, inserts his own greeting, before Paul names his host and other officials in the city. The book closes with a final majestic doxology which incorporates many of the themes of the book. Scholars debate over whether this was written by Paul or was a post-Pauline addition to end the book on a theological and doxological note, rather than simply final greetings between Paul and friends. In addition, it does not appear in some of the earliest manuscripts of Romans. This final section speaks of the gospel as the revelation of the mystery of God, to “bring about the obedience of faith, through Jesus Christ,” and ends on the note of worship: “to whom be the glory forever, Amen!”

The cohort leads Jesus out to be crucified. Because Jesus no longer has the strength to carry his own cross, a man from Cyrene, named Simon, is enlisted to do so for him. They reach the public site for execution and offer Jesus wine mixed with a pain killer, but upon tasting it, he refused to drink. After crucifying him, the soldiers sit down, divide among them what is left of Jesus’ clothing and keep watch. Crucifixion was Rome’s way of intimidating the people and suppressing revolt, and so, attached to the cross above Jesus’ head is a placard listing his offense: “Jesus, King of the Jews.” Matthew includes the other two men crucified with Jesus, naming them “bandits”—today we would say “political terrorists”—and quickly turns to the crowd of Jews mocking their king. Ironically, the charges they hurl at him speak the truth: in destroying the temple of his body, he will rise up again in three days. He can save himself, but he won’t. For if he does save himself he will not save others, and the entire purpose of his life will be lost. Their faux pleas for him to entrust himself to God’s care turn out to be precisely what is taking place: he does trust God to deliver him, and God will, but in a way none—from the highest religious official, to the bandits on either side of him—could possibly imagine. For now, a righteous man dies in the midst of the unrighteous, and does so for their sake.

Posted July 29, 2014
Monday, July 28, 2014

Monday, July 28

Joshua 24:16–33; Psalm 57; Romans 16:1–16; Matthew 27:24–31

The people respond to Joshua’s warning and challenge by affirming that they will serve the Lord alone, they will put away the idols of foreign gods that they have among them, and they will remain true to the Lord and his ways. Joshua warns them a second time: they cannot serve the Lord, for he is holy and demanding and unforgiving of those who abandon him. Yet again, the people insist on their fidelity. And so, Joshua makes a covenant with them, gives them statutes and ordinances and names them witnesses against themselves. He sets up a large stone in their place of worship as a memorial to the moment. It has heard their oath and will stand as witness against them should they violate it. Joshua then sends them home, to the portion of the land that they have inherited (“their inheritance,”) and the narrator simply tells us that Joshua died. He was 110—ten years younger than Moses, who, you will note, has slipped decidedly into the background by now. It is almost as though Joshua is the law giver and God’s agent in making the covenant. The chronicler now ties up loose ends, recording the burial of Joseph’s bones in the plot that Jacob had purchased, and concludes that the people did keep the covenant throughout all the days that the elders who were Joshua’s contemporaries lived. Eleazar, Aaron’s son and Chief Priest also dies. The people are in the land as God had promised, and the transition generation is gone. The stage is set for a new era and new challenges.

Psalm 57 is a psalm of trust from someone in the midst of personal trouble. Others seek his life and he finds that his only sure refuge is the Lord. So, he lifts up and strengthens his soul by praising God. It is attributed to David when he was fleeing Saul’s murderous rage and contains lovely and classic expressions of trust and praise for God’s steadfast love and faithfulness. God is exalted as merciful, and will catch the psalmist’s enemies in their own trap. Notice how the psalm narrates the deeds of the wicked that are then interrupted by acclamations of God’s steadfast love and faithfulness. Twice God is called upon to “Be exalted above the heavens” and let his glory be over all the earth. The psalmist insists upon his own steadfast heart and calls upon it to sing and make melody. He will sing with such joy that he will awake the dawn, giving thanks to God among the nations.

As Paul brings his letter to a close he sends greetings to fellow workers who are in the church in Rome, 27 by name, of which a third are women! Phoebe is listed first as she is the one who has brought the letter to Rome from Paul’s hand in Corinth. Phoebe appears to have been a woman of substance as there was a house church in her home. Several of the women are listed as deacons, and at least one—Junia—Paul speaks of as an apostle! She and her husband were “in the Lord” before Paul, and they had been fellow prisoners with him. It is quite possible that they were contemporaries of Jesus and eyewitness of his ministry, given the fact that they are spoken of as “among the apostles”. Some older English translations still include the masculine form of Junia’s name [Junias], a change made to the text by a copyist at a later date when, because the issue of women in leadership was considered scandalous by the culture, women had ceased to be in such positions. The change was probably less a cover-up than a copyist thinking he was correcting an error. Prisca and Aquila had come from the Roman church when the Jews had been exiled and worked together with Paul in Corinth and Ephesus, and had “risked their own necks” for him in the riot at Ephesus. They are to greet one another with a holy kiss—the ancient sign of Christ’s peace among early Christians, and the origins of the “passing of the peace” in modern Christian worship.

Pilate washes his hands of the whole thing; unable to control the crowd’s lust for Jesus’ blood, he will not have it on his own hands. Then he releases Barabbas, has Jesus scourged—the preparation for crucifixion—and hands him over to the soldiers for crucifixion. After the scourging, the soldiers take Jesus back to Pilate’s headquarters, and engaged in some cruel pastime to while away the hours with soldier’s games until the sun comes up. They mock this King of the Jews with scornful symbols of royalty. Note that in this time of contempt, the soldiers were clueless as to what was going on here between Jesus and the religious leaders. This was simply their way of dealing with the enemy, not unlike soldiers in other times and places that have taunted and abused their own prisoners—it is what warfare does to us. This was, after all, in their eyes, another would-be pretender to Caesar’s throne—their enemy. When they had tired of their games and the sun was up, they lead Jesus off to be crucified.

Posted July 28, 2014
Sunday, July 27, 2014

Sunday, July 27

7th Sunday after Pentecost

Joshua 24:1–15; Psalm 67; Acts 28:23–31; Mark 2:23–28

Joshua now gathers the tribes at Shechem. Located in the central hill country of the land, it was a natural center for gathering and became a place of worship and covenant-making in Israel, prior to King David. This is the first mention of it. Joshua rehearses the people’s history with the Lord, telling the story in the voice of the Lord—note that the “I” in the text is God speaking. It begins with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, accounts for Esau and his people, the Edomites living in the hill country east of the Jordan River, and continues the chronicle through the taking of the land. Interestingly enough, the account at the Red Sea speaks only of God destroying the Egyptians by bringing the sea upon them. There is no talk of the division of the sea and walking through it. And though the wandering in the wilderness is described as “for a long time,” there is no mention of the covenant at Sinai or the giving of the Law. Joshua calls the people to renew their faithfulness to the Lord, and to abandon the gods their people served “beyond the River” east of the Euphrates, as well as in Egypt. But, if they are unwilling to do this, they need to choose just who they will serve. He concludes with the iconic pledge, “As for me and my house, we will serve the Lord.”

Psalm 67 is a classic psalm of praise invoking God’s blessing and calling on the entire nation to praise the Lord for his blessings among them. God judges with equity among all the nations. The language here recalls the Aaronic benediction (Numbers 6:24-26) and may have been used as a priestly blessing of the people as they came to or left the Temple at various agricultural festivals. Certainly, “The earth has yielded its increase; God, our God, has blessed us,” would suggest as much. Interestingly, the Hebrew word for God’s name, given to Moses at the burning bush, and rendered in English as “LORD,” is missing here. Instead, the broader term for God, Elohim, is consistently used. Central to the psalm is the conviction that the God who has blessed “us” (Israel is never mentioned but assumed), is the God of all, and “all the ends of the earth” are called upon to revere, fear, and stand in awe before him.

Paul has arrived in Rome and is now allowed to live by himself, accompanied only by a Roman guard. After getting settled, he calls together the local leaders of the Jews (not the Roman church), to explain himself to them—why he is there, what he has and has not done, and most importantly, in order to have an opportunity to share with them the gospel, which is what today’s lesson is about. As has been the case from the beginning, some are convinced and some are not, and a dispute breaks out. Frustrated by their response, Paul recalls the words God spoke to Isaiah at his call, and how the people would resist God’s word of salvation spoken through him (Isaiah 6:9-10) to the nation. So too, the Spirit now speaks the same word. “Let it be known to you then that this salvation of God has been sent to the Gentiles. They will listen!” It is Paul’s way of putting them on notice that they are now responsible for their rejection. Paul has fulfilled his responsibility to them; the judgment is now upon them. The book concludes with Paul still in Rome at his own expense, two years later, still with his house guard, but welcoming all who come, proclaiming the Kingdom of God and teaching about “the Lord Jesus Christ, with all boldness and without hindrance.” The expectation is that he will be going on to Spain, once his difficulties arising from his appeal to the Emperor are resolved.

Passing through a grain field on the Sabbath, Jesus’s disciples begin to pluck the heads off the plants and eat them. The Pharisees see it and protest—Jesus’ disciples are working on the Sabbath—it is not lawful. Jesus respond by recounting how David, when in dire need, violated the provision of the Law, taking the bread of the Presence, reserved only for the High Priest, and gave it to his companions to meet their need (1 Samuel 21:1-6). His point: the Law (in this case the sabbath regulations for rest), was made for humanities’ sake, not the other way around. But more important still, Jesus is master and Lord of the sabbath (and therefore the Law), something no faithful Jew would dare claim.

Posted July 27, 2014
The Rev. Dr.       Fred R. Anderson

Author: The Rev. Dr.       Fred R. Anderson
Created: June 21, 2012

The Rev. Dr. Fred R. Anderson, Pastor of Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church, offers thoughts on today’s lectionary readings.

© 2014